Posts tagged ‘independence case’

April 14, 2011

And the dirt he popped up from, he bought in 1830

Joshua Case has been my idée fixe for some time now. He appears to have “popped up out of the dirt” in Illinois in 1830. Here’s the recap of the findings, to date.
Thanks to a generous male who descends from Jackson Case, we know that the Case family who lived in Illinois, Iowa, Missouri and Arkansas belong to the same DNA group as descendants of one of the Case brothers who settled in New England in the early 1600’s and are believed to be sons of William Solomon Case of Aylesham, England. Don’t get excited, they did not arrive on the Mayflower. Some accounts have them arriving on the Dorsett. Three are fairly well known and studied, Thomas, John, and William. Thomas had no children, so he is eliminated as an ancestor. There are two other Case names in the area at the time, Richard and Henry, who may also have been brothers to these three. There is no paper or archival source of which I am acquainted which conclusively links Henry and Richard to Thomas, John and William. However, there is a descendant of a Henry Case (1637-1664) on the Case DNA list, whose DNA matches other descendants of William Solomon Case.
So, does this leave me in the same place as when I started? Not exactly. Though it seems with this family I find more about the families associated with them than about them, I am inching ahead, learning a tiny bit about them and more about the history around them. Inchworm, inchworm, you and your arithmetic will probably go far.
The Will and Probate
Joshua Case created a will before he died in September, 1833. In it, he named his wife, Catharine, and his children, Charlotte, Olive, Independence, and Andrew Jackson. From his will, we learned that he owned land and the specific tract was the W½SE¼ of Section 2, T4S, R8W. The will was witnessed by Luther Simmons and John Crozier, who were brothers-in-law of each other and of the Probate Judge, Samuel G. Thompson. Those three were connected through the Crozier family, Samuel married Mary Ann Crozier, brother of John and sister of Nancy, who married Luther Simmons.
Probate for Joshua lasted at least eleven years, the last entry on the film was in 1844. Joseph Orr was appointed guardian for Olive, Independence, and Andrew Jackson. Charlotte Case chose John C. Crozier. None of the records in the Probate book provide direct or stated information for Catharine’s maiden name. Just tantalizing possibilities, was she related to the Crozier, Simmons or Thompson families?
The Land
The land, the W½ of the SE quarter of Section 2 in Township 4S of Range 8W, of Principal Meridian 3, encompassed 80 acres. According to the bureau of land management, government land office site, this land was originally patented to the legal heirs of William Peach, deceased, in 1825. The Deed Record, Book O, page 368 for of Randolph County, Illinois, lists these heirs as William Peach and his wife Priscilla, Levi Simmons and his wife Lois, William Simmons and his wife Mary, and Charles Darrow and his wife Sally. Joshua Case paid $120 for the land.
The Conclusions
Not a lot of “move ahead” information was found for the Cases. Though thin, the information learned here was valuable. Though some say B-O-R-I-N-G, cough- my kids-cough. Joshua’s name was previously thought to be Jonathan; the will and probate proved his name was Joshua. It also proved that his wife’s name was Catharine, not Susannah as some have speculated. Although no maiden name was discovered for Catharine, directions for search are strongly suggested by the recurring associations with the Simmons, Peach, Crozier, Lindsey, Brown and Thompson families. Andrew Jackson’s first name, “Andrew”, was finally and officially confirmed as such. Until this, his name was always stated as only Jackson on every official record I had examined.
So, does this mean mean that I am in exactly the same place as when I started? Not exactly, though, with this family I often find out more about the families around them and history of where they lived than about them. But I am inching ahead. Inch worm, inch worm, you and your arithmetic you’ll probably go far.

March 7, 2011

Genealogy, n. An account of one’s descent from a man who did not particularly care to trace his own.

I have ancestors who popped up out of the dirt.

They came from nowhere, or Ohio, they had no parents, and they died leaving only the land and their best feather bed to their children, whose names were already known. That is, of course, if they left a will. Provided they didn’t burn the place down when they left, well, at least the courthouse. There are no others around them of their surname and they weren’t kind enough to provide the maiden name of their wife in said will. Neither did they provide the relationship they had to their witnesses to said will.

And this is why I love this stuff!

For example, Joshua Case, left a will in Randolph County, Illinois. Bt-dubs, I’m still having a tough time remembering his name’s not Jonathan as he has been Jonathon for almost ten years. He allowed his wife and children the use of his farm as long as his wife Catharine remained his widow. He willed the land to his only son Jackson. Who knew? He had land! The will was witnessed by John C. Crozier and Luther Simmons. These two were brothers-in-law. Nancy Crozier, sister of John C. Crozier, married Luther Simmons. Almost ten years later, Luther Simmons and Samuel G. Thompson witnessed the will of John C. Crozier, again, brothers-in-law as Samuel G. Thompson married Mary Ann Crozier. Joshua’s will did not appoint a guardian for his children, the court appointed Joseph Orr, however, Charlotte, being over fourteen, chose John C. Crozier.

Was Catharine a Crozier? If she were, then she would have most likely have been a sister to John, Mary Ann and Nancy. Were she their sister, then it stands to reason that Samuel Crozier, their father, would have mentioned her in his will. He did not. Still, she could have been a sister left out because he had already covered her in another way. Possible, but not too likely.

The possibility that she was a Simmons or a Thompson or an Orr remains to be investigated.

February 13, 2011

No, my first name ain’t Jonathan, it’s Joshua, Mr. Caise if you are hasty

Yes, the films arrived, yes one of them was of H-U-G-E value. Before I spill on the information in the film, let’s lay out the background information, in order to understand the significance of what was found.

In genealogy, there is something known as intergenerational proof. This is proof that a given person was the parent of another. It seems so obvious to us all now, I know who my mother and father are, and I can prove it with my birth certificate. But what if that record was destroyed or never existed in the first place? How would I prove that I was their daughter? Intergenerational proof can be easy to find, such as when a will names all the children; it is especially handy if the parent bequeaths to women who are already married and is specific, e.g., “I, Joseph Tallchief, give my best feather bed to my daughter Agatha Andreyovich Tallchief, now the wife of John Anderson”. Because that happens all the time! Yeah, dream on. It is rare when a will is found and it so specific that it names everyone in the decedent’s family and their relationship to the deceased!

Hence intergenerational proof is often built in pieces. Frequently records are found which strongly suggest, but never quite say things flat out. Enough of them can provide evidence that certain people had a relationship which strongly suggests that they were parent and child.
Sometimes, a genealogist is lucky enough to find a “record” of a fact which is very unofficial. For example, the intergenerational proof of Jane Mangum’s connection to John Mangum, the Patriot, was not found in a will, or any other “official” and “recorded” document but in a hand written statement by her nephew, wherein he says that his Aunt Jenny married George Crawford. No official document states this relationship. Itawamba County Marriage Book One has a listing for the marriage of a Jane Mangum to George Crawford in Itawamba county, Mississippi in 1841. The only Mangum family enumerated in the county in 1840 was that of John Mangum. This John Mangum was known to have a daughter named Jane, but somebody had named her as the wife of Jedediah Brown, which was in error. This error had to be toppled before Jane Mangum Crawford could be asserted as his daughter. It looked as though it wouldn’t happen until a hand written document of the family history written by Samuel Newton Adair was found. It states:

“I, Samuel Newton Adair, will write what I know about my mother’s folks. My grandfather’s name was John Mangum … Jeney Mangrum married George Crawford, Gemima Mangrum married Samuel Jefferson Adair, my father. Rebecca Mangrum married Joseph Adair, my father’s cousin.”

Obviously, this was not recorded anywhere and must not have been known to the author of “Jedediah Brown” information. Of course now it is known and all those Jedediah Brown proponents have to stop asserting that. They really do have to stop.

Now, are you ready for what was in the Probate file? Well, if you are ready and have not quit reading this altogether, here goes. Well almost, a little more background is needed.

Until the Probate record was examined, we had circumstantial evidence that a man enumerated as Jonathan Case in the Federal Census of 1830 in Randolph County, Illinois was the father of Charlotte Case, Olive Case, Independence Case and Jackson Case and the husband of Catharine (unknown maiden name) who subsequently married W. Callaway McGregor. As an aside, since we are a family of golfers, some of whom are PGA Golf Professionals, that name gives us a chuckle. What are the odds? Notice how I hedged on how he, Mr. Case, was enumerated? Technically, we only know that the name of the man on the census was written down as Jonathan or what appears to be Jonathan to most of us who have read it. On this same page the families nearby include John H. Crozier, in addition to the Shelton Evans family, the William Peach family and the William, Levi, Jr. and Levi, Sr. Simmons families. In this county and nearby St. Clair and Monroe counties there are other records. There is a marriage record for a Charlotte Case to Spencer Ellsworth, in St. Clair county, a marriage record for Independence Case to Beverly Lindsey, in Randolph County, a marriage record for Catharine Case to W. Callaway McGregor (fore!) in Monroe county. A Charlotte Elsworth married Allen Brown in Lee County, Iowa in 1844. A few years later, there is a census enumeration in District 19, Clark County, MO in 1850, for a Catherine McGregory [sic] born in Indiana. She is living with Charlott [sic] Brown, also born in Indiana, and Charlott’s presumed daughter, Catharine, born in Iowa in 1846. Jackson Case, born about 1830 in Illinois, is in the same household. A few pages over in the same census is a listing for Olive Evans, and family and Independence Lamare and family. There is a marriage record, 9 May 1851, for Olive Case to Washington Evans recorded in Clark County, Missouri. We have no death date for the “Jonathan”, of the 1830 census, and no intergenerational proof that this Jonathan was connected to the aforementioned Cases, no birth date for Jonathan. If he was married to Catherine, perhaps they divorced and he married someone else. There is another Case in St. Clair county, who had a brother named Jonathan, was it he who was enumerated rather than the father of Charlotte, Olive, Independence and Jackson? Can the Probate record help answer these questions?

For most non-genealogists, the record is pretty boring, on 16 October 1833, John H. Crozier (remember him from the census?) presents the will of Joshua Caise. The will was not entered into the record on the same page as this entry from 16 October 1833 and has not yet been located in the Probate Court proceedings.

One year later, on the 6th day of October 1834, John C. Crozier renders the account of Joshua Caise, and is ordered to pay the widows share of one third of the estate to Catherine Caise.

It is therefore ordered by the court that the said John C. Crozier pay out to Catherine Caise the sum of sixty-one dollars & sixty three cents this being the share and portion belonging to the said Catherine of the estate of her deceased husband being the one third part of the nett [sic] proceeds thereof.
It is also ordered that the said John C. Crozier pay over to Charlotte, Olive and Independence, children of the said Joshua Case deceased, or to their guardians, each, the sum of forty one dollars & eight cents, this being their share & proportion of the estate of their deceased father.

We are still missing a child, Jackson, who was about three years old when his father died. One month later, guardianship of the children is set, at least for most of the children.

Monday November 3, 1834 court met agreeable to adjournment
“On motion of Joseph H Orr it is ordered that the said Joseph be appointed guardian of Olive Casse, Independence Casse & Andrew Jackson Casse minors under the age of fourteen years on his entering into bond with good and sufficient security as the law directs.”

Two years later, as Charlotte is over fourteen, she may chose her guardian. In February of 1835, she did so.

“Charlotte Casse a minor over the age of fourteen year chooses John C. Crozier as her guardian, it is therefore ordered that the said John C. Crozier be appointed the guardian of the said Charlotte Casse on his entering into bond with good & sufficient security, as the law directs.”

Charlotte’s birth year was thought to have been 1823, if she was fourteen in 1835, her birth year was 1821 or earlier. Meaning that Catherine and Joshua were married by 1820 – 1821.

What about this excites a genealogist? The first examination of the Probate record confirms that Charlotte, Olive, Independence and Jackson, were siblings. It is official confirmation of Jackson’s first name as Andrew. It narrows the death date of Joshua significantly to sometime before 16 October 1833. Joshua was the first name of the father of Charlotte, Olive, Independence and Andrew Jackson Case, not Jonathan, although he may have been named Joshua Jonathan Case. Joshua Case was married to Catherine, who’s surname is not yet known. Charlotte was likely born in 1821, not 1823. The Independence Case who married Beverly Lindsey was the daughter of Joshua and Catharine. What else is interesting? John C. Crozier was enumerated on the same page as Jonathan Case in 1830, which, in addition to the matching family age pattern of Charlotte, Olive, Independence and Jackson, is more indication that this Jonathan is the same person as Joshua and may point to a closer relationship with John C. Crozier or his wife, Mary “Polly” Lindsay, than neighbor. There may exist a relationship to the Joseph H. Orr, which is deeper than some nice reputable guy who was appointed guardian of his children. Don’t confuse custody and care with guardianship, the latter indicated some money management aspect and may have been separate from custody. Lastly, the James Case living next door to Olive Case Evans and Independence Case Lindsey Lemarr in the 1850 Clark County, Missouri Census was not a previously undiscovered son of Joshua Case of Randolph County, Illinois. James Case’s age was 25 in 1850, which may have placed him in the under 5 category in the 1830 census, Jackson may have been not yet born, or as sometimes happened, an infant who was not enumerated.

Oh, and my apologies for ripping off a Janet Jackson song title.

January 22, 2011

Don’t overlook the obvious

Perhaps the LDS didn’t have the film the last time I checked, but I doubt it. Perhaps I was focused on another branch last time I placed a film order, slightly more likely. Or perhaps I didn’t read carefully when viewing what was available in Randolph County, Illinois, regarding probate and guardianship in the 1830 – 1834 time period, which is the most likely. Perhaps I ordered the film and then had a very busy period at work, etc., so that the film ended up being sent back before I could look at it, also highly likely. But for whatever reason, I didn’t order or examine the films for this era and, guess what, turns out they exist and might be of H-U-G-E value.
In fact, I had begun to wonder if the father hadn’t died, that perhaps there had been a divorce. But I thought I’d look one last time for any possible probate records for the county and the time period. I went googling, it helps although it is no substitute for the archives, and came upon a page, by a woman named Velda Moore, of some Randolph County records. I can’t really tell you exactly what led me to her page, I am fairly certain I was searching for obituaries in old newspapers thinking that I had searched probate/guardianship records before with no success. I can’t even replicate the search, now.

Under the Probate Record 1832 – 1843 tab, the following names were found.
PROBATE RECORD 1832-1843 Page 3

Casie Joshua 173,176,211,256
Casse Olive 173,187,214
Casse Andrew J. 174
Casse Independence 174
Casse Charlotte 176,187,213

I included Joshua Casie since he appears on the same page as at least one of the group and deserves investigation.

Under the tab marked Book B-2, April 2, 1833 to Nov 6, 1849 the following names were located.

Casse Olive 21
Casse Independence 21
Casse Jackson 21
Casse Charlotte 23

Immediately, I checked the LDS site for Randolph County, Illinois, and there are film records available for order for the time period.
Oh yeah, ordering those!
Next time, when I am certain that Sherman marched sideways on his way to the Sea and did his scorched earth thaing in a county previously unknown to be touched by him, small joke, very small, I’ll look again, and again.

BTDubs- most courthouse fires in the South were a result of something other than Sherman’s march.

August 26, 2010

Sometimes, it pays to think

I mean really, sometimes even I can do some wholesale ignoring of the facts. Take, for example, Charlotte Case, the sister of my great-great-great-grandmother Independence Case. While searching the Illinois Archives for information on Independence Case’s first marriage to Beverly Lindsey, I found the marriage of a Charlotte Case to Spencer Ellsworth in St. Clair County, 01 January 1834. Since I subsequently found Spencer Ellsworth alive in the 1850 Census, in Illinois and, in the 1850 census for Clark County, Missouri, Charlotte Case Brown, and since Charlotte’s age in 1850 suggests an 1823 birthdate, making her 11 in 1834, I presumed that this was a different Charlotte Case. I found Independence Case’s marriage record online, duly noted the date in my database, added the source, then failed to order the film to view the actual information. It just kept falling to the bottom of the priority file.
After some time of searching for proof of the parentage of Independence, Charlotte, Olive and Jackson Case and, in so doing, to verify the spouse of Catherine [unknown] Case McGregor, their presumed mother, I realized that attempting to push back without branching out first was not going to get me where I wanted to go. That is, to know if Jonathan Case, was indeed the father of these four, find out who his father was and determine Catherine’s maiden name, I was going to have to flesh out these people just a bit more.
To start, I ordered the film of the marriage record of Independence Case. One reason I had not ordered the record from Illinois, IRAD, was that it was somewhat less than clear how to order the record, mostly due to my impatience with determining whom to write and how much it would cost me. (Just give me a link to an image, I’ll pay for it, duh!) Therefore, I thought I’d better start with the FHL film. When I examined the film record, an unexpected fact was learned, Spencer Ellsworth gave permission for Independence to marry Beverly Lindsey. Now, I had presumed that this family was much like so many of my family, that, if someone remarried, they had been widowed, not divorced. Okay, stop clicking your tongues, turns out families have patterns, sometimes only for a generation, sometimes for a long time. These people apparently had more of a “divorcing” pattern than I had assumed. It was becoming clear that Charlotte had married then divorced Spencer.
So, all those searches I had done for a Charlotte Case marrying unknown Brown were pretty much wasted key boarding. Try searching for Ellsworth. Le Voila!
There you go, Allen, his name was Allen. Woohoo! In Lee County, where I had recently tracked Sarah Ann Walker Case, not to be confused with her sister Mary Jane Walker, and Sarah Sargent Rich Case Wyatt, two spouses of Jackson Case, did I mention that divorce pattern thing? Now I know just a tiny bit more about at least a couple of folks.
And, yeah, I am going to have to get a copy of that record sooner rather than later!

May 9, 2010

I know a little bit, about a lot of folks

When faced with a brick wall, one of the fastest ways over it is to search for more information about the people around them in, for example, Census and Land Records. I have a few ancestors who appear to have popped up out of the ground in one state, claiming to have been born in OhioKentuckyNewYorkSouthCarolinaIndiana, with no other families around them of that surname.
Currently, my “problem ancestor” is Jonathan Case, at least I believe his name to be Jonathan. Really, my problem ancestor is Independence Case and her connection to the Case’s of Connecticut, in fact to any Cases whatsoever. From DNA results, male descendants of Jackson Case share a common Y-DNA gene pattern with the descendants of John Case and Sarah Spencer of Simsbury, CT. How Independence and her Cases are connect is a matter for paper work.
As with any dilemma, we move from the known to the unknown. So just what is known about Independence Case? What is known is that Independence Case lived in Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas and died in Arkansas; that she married 1) Beverly Lindsey and 2) John LeMarr. From John Lemarr’s pension application, she and John Lemarr named a daughter Catherine and Olive Charlotte, which was rendered Olef C. on many censuses. In Arkansas, she lived near a Jackson Case, who has been determined to be her brother. Jackson and John were part of “Arkansas’s damned Yankee’s”. That is, they were Union soldiers; they served in the same company. Jackson applied for an “invalid” pension, having been injured or sickened as a result of his service, and in this pension application, he named her as his sister. He named John LeMarr as his brother-in-law and a witness to his service in the Union Army. I am indebted to the researchers who shared this information with me. In John LeMarr’s pension application, he stated that he and Independence were married in Clark County, Missouri and that she was a widow, with a last name of Lindsey.
Independence married Beverly Lindsey on April 11, 1840, in the remarks for her marriage record is the name Spencer Ellsworth. On January 1, 1838, Charlotte Case married Spencer Ellsworth in St. Clair County, Illinois. Spencer was likely giving consent to marry to his wife’s sister.
In the 1850 census, Independence and John LeMarr, rendered as John Q Lamare, are living next door to Olive Evans and Wash Evans, next door to the Evans family, is the James and Melcina Case. James was born in Kentucky in 1827. Is James related in some way? Was he possibly the male under five in the census in 1830 for Jonathan Case in Randolph County, IL? Or did they simply assume him to be related due to their name?
Census records place her birth in 1825 in either Arkansas or New York; most likely it is Arkansas Territory as she was born in 1825. We can see from birth patterns of those found to be her brothers and sisters, New York would be quite a bit out of the way for her family. Her brother, Jackson, born after her, was born in 1830 in Randolph County, Illinois. Since we now have Jackson Case as a brother, with a birthplace in Illinois, we can search in the earliest census with individual names, 1850, for a Jackson Case with a birthplace of Illinois. The 1850 census finds Jackson living in the household of Charlotte Brown with Charlotte’s daughter, Catharine, born in 1846 in Iowa, and Catharine McGregory [sic], born in Indiana in 1792, in Clark County, Missouri. Also in Clark county records, is a marriage of Jackson Case to Mary Ann Walker on 13 Jan 1848. A Sarah A. Walker is enumerated in Lee County, Iowa. There is an Anne V. Case, 1 year old, in the household as well. There is a Mary S. Walker in the household, but I believe that the Recorder, or the J.P. simply misstated the first name on the marriage record.
Moving backward twenty years, in a search of the 1830 Census in Illinois, Randolph County, there is a Jonathan Case with one male under 5, one male 30-40, one female under 5, two females 5-10 and one female 20-30. This is a consistent pattern with the ages of Olive, Charlotte, Independence and Jackson. Consider the possibility that Jackson was not yet born at the time of enumeration and this is an additional male child. There is no Case family in Randolph County in 1840 and no Jonathan Case in surrounding counties in 1840
Moving to 1840, there is no Case family in Randolph County, Illinois. A search of marriage records in the Illinois State Archives site finds a marriage of a Catherine Case to W. Calaway McGregor in 1834. This places Catharine in Illinois, in a neighboring county to Randolph County soon after Jackson’s birth. Could she be Jonathan’s widow? There is a W.C. McGregor Family, with 1 male 5-10, 1 male 15-20, 1 male 30-40, 1 female 10-15 and 1 female 30-40. This aligns with Catherine and either Olive or Independence in the household, Jackson and W.C. and one extra male, either a son of McGregor from a previous marriage or perhaps a brother or field hand.
Why were so many children born in these families in Iowa? Did they live there before moving to Clark County, Missouri? Was there some sort of boundary issue? If they were residents o Lee County, are there other Case families in the area with whom they may have settled? Although it is possible that they may have lived there and there are Case families in the county, at this time, I can’t find a connection to the county. There was a boundary issue between Clark County, MO and Van Buren and Lee Counties, IA. The sheriff of Clark County was arrested while within the disputed area by the sheriff of the other. There is no definitive evidence for either case at this time. However, if they resided in Clark County, MO all this time, then the children were probably not born in Iowa due to a glitch in the drawing of the boundary as the disputed land belonged to Iowa and was erroneously drawn within Missouri’s borders. This means part of Iowa was deemed to be in Missouri, not the other way around. This fact seems to indicate that they were actually in Iowa and thence living with some yet unknown family connection at the time that the children were born, moving across the river by 1850.
Moving forward in time to 1860, a Catharine Case is found in 1860 in the household of Sarah Case, 24 born in New Hampshire, Perry Case born in Iowa in 1852, and Ellen Case, born in Missouri in 1859. They are listed two pages away from the Daniel Morgan family with wife Charlotte, daughters Mary, born in Ohio, in 1845, Catherine born in 1846 in Iowa and sons Noah 3 and Jackson 1, both born in Missouri. A mystery has surrounded Sarah, what was her maiden name, was she the same Sarah whom Jackson married in 1848? If so, where was Anne Victoria, who later marries Green N. Vermilion, in 1865 in Clark County?
To connect Jackson to Sarah, solve her maiden name mystery and possibly shed some light on a family connection for Jackson, and his sisters, we need to compare Schuyler County land records vis a vis marriage records and later census records. On 16 Feb 1862, Sarah Case marries Samuel Wyott [sic] in Schuyler County, Missouri. Samuel Wyatt was a neighbor to Jackson Case and John Q. Lemarr. Sarah A. Case (Mrs) married Joseph C. Estes in Lee County, IA in 1852, and is found in the 1860 census in Keokuk, Lee County, Iowa in the Joseph Estes household with daughter Ann V., age 11 in the household, along with daughter Mary Jane, 13. This still yields no maiden name for Sara A. Case Wyatt until we dig a bit deeper. In the 1880 census, Sarah Wyatt is living in the household of Francis Marion Jones and listed as his mother-in-law. His wife is Marium, 34, born in, you guessed it, Iowa. Yet another, “who is that” mystery!
Searching marriage records for Francis Marion Jones in Schuyler County, Missouri, finds a record for Francis and Marium Rich, 16 Mar 1862, one month later and on the next page over from Sarah’s marriage to Samuel Wyatt. One more marriage and census record to find. Searching for Sarah Rich in Census records finds Sarah Rich in the household of Alundin Rich with presumed daughters Miriam 4, and Ann 2 and son Nicolas 8 mos. Marriage record search finds a marriage of Sanders Rich and Sary A. Sargent, 7 Nov 1845 in Clark County, MO.
Moral to the story is, look at the people around your ancestor for clues to who may be related. Dig deeper than census, check military, land and marriage records for clues to relationships. Although I haven’t found the father of Independence and Jackson and their sisters, yet, I am closer to filling in the details of their lives.